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We did the research ... we wrote the book!

Research sponsored by the National Science Foundation at the University of Oklahoma with Dr. Kenneth E. Starling as principal investigator led to the BWRS equation of state and the book Fluid Thermodynamic Properties for Light Petroleum Systems in 1973.  Since 1973, the BWRS equation has been used extensively in natural gas pipeline design.

During congressional hearings in 1979 on the proposed natural gas pipeline from Alaska to the lower 48 US states, consultant Dr. Norman F. Carnahan questioned use of AGA Report NX-19 for compressor calculations.  BWRS calculations provided to Norm by Ken Starling proved extensive errors in the use of NX-19 for compressors.   Norm Carnahan subsequently championed AGA/GRI sponsorship of research under Ken Starling’s direction which led to the publication of AGA Report No. 8 in 1985.  Continued research resulted in improved accuracy in AGA Report No. 8 (2nd edition in 1992, reprint in 1994).

Ken Starling has been broadly involved in natural gas measurement activities as a researcher, consultant and software developer.  He led a GRI sponsored research project in the early 1980’s involving the statistical analysis and correlation of experimental orifice meter discharge coefficient data as part of the broad research effort leading to revising API 14.3/AGA 3.  He has been a consultant to numerous companies.

Ken has been a member of the AGA Transmission Measurement Committee and the API COGFM since 1980 and has participated in development of numerous standards, including API 14.1, API 14.3, API 21.1, and AGA Reports 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10.  From 1982 through 1991 he was Chairman of the Executive Committee of the International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement.  He has presented papers on measurement topics at numerous meetings, including ISHM, AGA, API, and GPA.

Since 1992, Ken Starling has worked closely with collaborators Juan Luongo, Jack Martin, Mary Ann Drass, Pam Battle, and Stephen Starling in development of the gas measurement software products offered by Starling Associates, Inc.  Through all of the work discussed above Ken Starling and collaborators have uncompromisingly sought to achieve precision and accuracy.  We know that others check their software against the SAI software as the test for accuracy, making SAI the de facto software standard.  When it comes to gas measurement software, “we did the research, we wrote the book”.